Ciprofloxacin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic used to treat urinary tract infections. The effect comes from the bacteria’s ability to inhibit DNA synthesis.
Ciprofloxacin is an antibiotic drug and belongs to the family of fluoroquinolones.
In other words, it is effective against diseases caused by both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.
What are the directions for use and side effects of ciprofloxacin? Let’s learn more about it now.
Ciprofloxacin’s characteristics differentiate it from other quinolone antibiotics that are mostly effective only on gram-negative bacteria.
As for directions for use, it is generally prescribed for the treatment of acute cystitis and lower respiratory tract infections, skin infections, bone infections, joint infections, as well as moderate urinary tract infections.
Is ciprofloxacin a broad-spectrum antibiotic?
Antibiotics can be broad-spectrum or narrow-spectrum drugs. Broad-spectrum antibiotics act against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.
In contrast, drugs with reduced range are only effective against one type of bacteria.
However, Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria can be distinguished according to the characteristics of the cell membrane.
Gram-positive bacteria have a cell membrane composed of peptidoglycan and an inner cytoplasmic membrane composed of a double lipid layer.
Gram-negative bacteria have another lipid bilayer not only in the cytoplasmic inner membrane but also in the outermost membrane.
There is a plasma membrane space between the two membranes.
The Gram-negative cell space is much larger and wider than that of Gram-positive bacteria and consists of peptidoglycans.
As you can see, gram-negative cell membranes are more complex than gram-positive cell membranes.
To determine the type, laboratory technicians must perform a series of tests that classify the bacteria. The most common technique is Gram staining.
Let’s take a closer look at the following aspects of ciprofloxacin.
- Mechanism of action
- Side Effect
What happens to the drug when it enters the body?
‘Pharmacokinetics’ is a term that includes the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination processes of a drug. In this regard, the mode of administration of ciprofloxacin is oral.
The absorption rate of the drug is 70%.
It should be noted, however, that ionic substances can chelate these drugs and reduce absorption.
Ciprofloxacin can also be administered intravenously in addition to oral administration.
In addition, in terms of distribution, fluoroquinolones exhibit large diffusion with minimal binding to plasma proteins.
In the case of metabolism, this process occurs in the liver. This represents the reaction the drug undergoes in the body so that it becomes more soluble in water and facilitates its elimination.
Four metabolites with low concentrations have been reported to be excreted in the urine via the kidneys .
- Docefil Ciprofloxacin
- Sulfa Ciprofloxacin
- Oxo Ciprofloxacin
- Formyl Ciprofloxacin
Mechanism and effects of ciprofloxacin
Ciprofloxacin is antibacterial in that it inhibits DNA synthesis. To do this, it binds to a protein that is part of the membrane, allowing the drug to enter the cell.
Once inside the cell, it binds to the DNA gyrase and reduces its activity. DNA gyrase is an enzyme that allows DNA replication and reduces the tension of molecules into superhelices.
Thus, it inhibits the DNA replication of bacteria, preventing multiplication and reversing infection.
Human and mammalian cells also contain type II local isomerase. It can be inhibited by drugs at high doses, resulting in certain antitumor effects.
Note that its action is reduced when administered with other drugs that inhibit protein synthesis. This is because all structures in which these actions occur are proteins.
Side effects of Ciprofloxacin
The most frequently reported drug side effects are nausea and diarrhea.
However, the following series of reactions have emerged from clinical trials of ciprofloxacin administered orally or intravenously and post-marketing side-effect monitoring.
- Fungal superinfection
- Eosinophilic leukocytosis
- Sleep and taste disorders
The side effects of drugs can seem many and varied, but the problems mentioned above are uncommon.
Therefore, as long as you follow the instructions of experts, ciprofloxacin is a fairly safe drug and has few side effects.
How about this article?